Black Panther is a fictional appearing in published by . The character was created by writer-editor and writer-artist , first appearing in #52 ( July 1966) in the . Black Panther's real name is T'Challa, king and protector of the fictional African nation of . Along with possessing enhanced abilities achieved through ancient Wakandan rituals of drinking the essence of the heart-shaped herb, T'Challa also relies on his proficiency in science, rigorous physical training, hand-to-hand combat skills, and access to wealth and advanced Wakandan technology to combat his enemies.
Black Panther is the first superhero of African descent in mainstream American comics, having debuted years before early superheroes such as Marvel Comics' the (1969), (1972) and (1973), or ' in the role of (1971). In one comic book storyline, the Black Panther mantle is handled by , a multiracial . Beginning as an impersonator, Cole would later take on the moniker of White Tiger and become an ally to T'Challa. The role of Black Panther and leadership of Wakanda is also given to T'Challa's sister for a short time.
Black Panther has made numerous appearances in various television shows, animated films and video games. The character is portrayed in live action by in the 2016 film , and the 2018 films and , set in the .
In 2011, Black Panther was ranked 51st overall on 's "Top 100 Comic Books Heroes" list.
The Black Panther's name predates the October 1966 founding of the , though not the black panther logo of the party's predecessor, the (LCFO), nor the . Stan Lee, co-creator of the comic, denied that the comic, which pre-dates the political usage of the term, was, or could have been, named after any of the political uses of the term "black panther", including the LCFO, citing "a strange coincidence". He is the first black superhero in American mainstream ; very few black heroes were created before him, and none with actual superpowers. These included the characters in the single-issue, low-distribution #1 (1947); Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who starred in his own feature in the omnibus title , from Marvel's 1950s predecessor, ; and the character , the first black person to star in his own comic book. Previous non- black supporting characters in comics include private of .
In a guest appearance in Fantastic Four #119 (Feb. 1972), the Black Panther briefly tried using the name Black Leopard to avoid connotations with the Party, but the new name did not last. The character's name was changed back to Black Panther in Avengers #105, with T'Challa explaining that renaming himself made as much sense as altering the 's name, and he is not a stereotype.
Co-creator recounted that the name was inspired by a pulp adventure hero who has a as a helper. Jack Kirby's original concept art for Black Panther used the concept name Coal Tiger.
Following his debut in #52–53 (July–Aug. 1966) and subsequent guest appearance in Fantastic Four Annual #5 (1967) and with in #97–100 (Jan.– April 1968), the Black Panther journeyed from the fictional nation of to to join the titular American superhero team in #52 (May 1968), appearing in that comic for the next few years. During his time with the Avengers, he made solo guest-appearances in three issues of , and fought in #6–7 (June & Aug. 1971), in that 's short-lived starring feature.
He received his first starring feature with #5 (July 1973), a reprint of the Panther-centric story in The Avengers #62 (March 1969). A new series began running the following issue, written by , with art by , , and , and which gave inkers and some of their first professional exposure. The critically acclaimed series ran in Jungle Action #6–24 (Sept. 1973 – Nov. 1976).
One now-common format McGregor pioneered was that of the self-contained, multi-issue story arc. The first, "Panther's Rage", ran through the first 13 issues. Critic Jason Sacks has called the arc "Marvel's first ":
[T]here were real character arcs in and the [comics] over time. But ... "Panther's Rage" is the first comic that was created from start to finish as a complete novel. Running in two years' issues of Jungle Action (#s 6 through 18), "Panther's Rage" is a 200-page novel that journeys to the heart of the African nation of Wakanda, a nation ravaged by a revolution against its king, T'Challa, the Black Panther.
The second and final arc, "Panther vs. the Klan", ran as mostly 17-page stories in Jungle Action #19–24 (Jan.–Nov. 1976), except for issue #23, a reprint of Daredevil #69 (Oct. 1970), in which the Black Panther guest-starred. The subject matter of the was considered controversial in the Marvel offices at the time, creating difficulties for the creative team.
African-American writer-editor said of the Jungle Action "Black Panther" feature:
This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most tightly written multi-part superhero epic ever. If you can get your hands on it ... sit down and read the whole thing. It's damn-near flawless, every issue, every scene, a functional, necessary part of the whole. Okay, now go back and read any individual issue. You'll find seamlessly integrated words and pictures; clearly introduced characters and situations; a concise (sometimes even transparent) recap; beautifully developed character relationships; at least one cool new villain; a stunning action set piece to test our hero's skills and resolve; and a story that is always moving forward towards a definite and satisfying conclusion. That's what we should all be delivering, every single month. Don [McGregor] and company did it in only 17 story pages per issue.
Though popular with college students, the overall sales of Jungle Action were low, and Marvel relaunched the Black Panther in a self-titled series, bringing in the character's co-creator —newly returned to Marvel after having decamped to rival for a time—as writer, penciler, and editor. However, Kirby wanted to work on new characters and was unhappy at being assigned a series starring a character he had already worked with extensively. He left the series after only 12 issues and was replaced by (writer), (penciler), and (editor). Black Panther ran 15 issues (Jan. 1977 – May 1979). Due to the series's cancellation, the contents of what would have been Black Panther #16–18 were published in #51–53.
A four-issue , Black Panther vol. 2, (July–Oct. 1988) was written by and penciled by . McGregor revisited his Panther saga with in "Panther's Quest", published as 25 eight-page installments within the bi-weekly series (issues #13–37, Feb.–Dec. 1989). He later teamed with artist in the square-bound miniseries Black Panther: Panther's Prey (Sept. 1990 – March 1991). McGregor conceived a fifth arc in his Black Panther saga, titled "Panther's Vows", but it failed to get off the ground.
Writer 's and penciller 's 1998 series The Black Panther vol. 3 used , , and other characters introduced in "Panther's Rage", together with new characters such as State Department attorney Everett Ross; the Black Panther's adopted brother, Hunter; and the Panther's protégé, Queen Divine Justice. The Priest-Texeira series was under the imprint in its first year. Priest said the creation of character Ross contributed heavily to his decision to write the series. "I realized I could use Ross to bridge the gap between the African culture that the Black Panther mythos is steeped in and the predominantly white readership that Marvel sells to," adding that in his opinion, the Black Panther had been misused in the years after his creation.
The last 13 issues (#50–62) saw the main character replaced by a named , with T'Challa relegated to a supporting character. This Black Panther, who became the , was placed in the series , running concurrently with the final few Black Panther issues. The Crew was canceled with issue #7.
In 2005, Marvel began publishing Black Panther vol. 4, which ran 41 issues (April 2005 – Nov. 2008). It was initially written by filmmaker (through issue #38) and penciled by (through #6). Hudlin said he wanted to add "" to the title, although he noted that the book was not necessarily or primarily geared toward an African-American readership. As influences for his characterization of the character, Hudlin has cited comic character , film director , and music artist . Other influences include historical figures such as 14th-century sultan and 20th-century Jamaican activist , as well as figures such as and .
Black Panther vol. 5 launched in February 2009, with Hudlin, again scripting, introducing a successor Black Panther, T'Challa's sister Shuri. Hudlin co-wrote issue #7 with , who then became the new writer, joined by artist Will Conrad. The Panther was also a featured player, with members of the Fantastic Four and the , in the Doctor Doom-based, six-issue miniseries Doomwar (April–Sept. 2010).
T'Challa then accepted an invitation from Matt Murdock, the superhero Daredevil, to become the new protector of New York City's neighborhood. He became the lead character in Daredevil beginning with issue #513 (Feb. 2011), when that series was retitled Black Panther: The Man Without Fear. Under writer David Liss and artist Francesco Francavilla, he took on the identity of Mr. Okonkwo, an immigrant from the , and becomes the owner of a small diner in order to be close to the people.
A new Black Panther series written by and drawn by was launched in 2016 and continues to be published with Coates as the head writer.
In 2017, the writer wrote the series Black Panther: Long Live the King.
The Black Panther is the ceremonial title given to the chief of the Panther Tribe of the advanced African nation of Wakanda. In addition to ruling the country, he is also chief of its various tribes (collectively referred to as the Wakandas). The Panther habit is a symbol of office (head of state) and is used even during diplomatic missions. The Panther is a hereditary title, but one must still earn it.
In the distant past, a made of the (fictional) vibration-absorbing mineral crashed in Wakanda, and was unearthed. Reasoning that outsiders would exploit Wakanda for this valuable resource, the ruler, King , like his father and other Panthers before him, concealed his country from the outside world. T'Chaka's first wife N'Yami died while in labor with T'Challa, and his second wife was taken prisoner by Anton Pretorius during a visit to her homeland of , so for most of his childhood T'Challa was raised by his father alone. T'Chaka was murdered by the adventurer in an attempt to seize the vibranium mound. With his people still in danger, a young T'Challa used Klaw's sound weapon on Klaw and his men, shattering Klaw's right hand and forcing him to flee.
T'Challa was next in line to be the king of Wakanda and Black Panther, but until he was ready to become the leader of the nation, his uncle S'yan (T'Chaka's younger brother) successfully passed the trials to become the Black Panther. While on his Wakandan , T'Challa met and fell in love with apparent orphaned teen , who would grow up to become the X-Men member Storm. The two broke off their relationship due to his desire to avenge his father's death and to become the type of man who could suitably lead Wakanda, but they would see each other over the years when they could.
T'Challa earned the title and attributes of the Black Panther by defeating the various champions of the Wakandan tribes. One of his first acts was to disband and exile the Hatut Zeraze—the Wakandan —and its leader, his adopted brother Hunter the White Wolf. He sold off small portions of vibranium to scientific institutions around the world, amassing a fortune which he used to arm himself with advanced technology. Later, to keep peace, he picked dora milaje ("adored ones") from rival tribes to serve as his personal guard and ceremonial wives-in-training. He then studied abroad for a time before returning to his kingship.
In his first published appearance, the now-adult T'Challa invites the American superhero team the Fantastic Four to Wakanda, then attacks and attempts to neutralize them individually in order to test himself to see if he is ready to battle Klaw, who had replaced his shattered right hand with a sonic weapon. For their part, the Four manage to rally and stymie T'Challa in a team counter-attack, enabling the impressed King to stand down and explain himself to the team's satisfaction. After the ruler makes proper amends to the Four, they befriend and help T'Challa, and he in turn aids them against the supervillain the . T'Challa later joins the Avengers, beginning a long association with that superhero team. He first battles the while with the group, and then meets the American singer Monica Lynne, with whom he becomes romantically involved. He helps the Avengers defeat the second , and then reveals his true identity on American television. He encounters Daredevil, and reveals to him that he had deduced Daredevil's true identity.
After receiving numerous urgent official letters requesting him to return to his increasingly troubled homeland, the Panther eventually leaves his active Avengers membership to return to a Wakanda on the brink of civil war, bringing Lynne with him. After defeating would-be usurper Erik Killmonger and his minions, the Panther ventures to the American South to battle the Ku Klux Klan. He later gains possession of the mystical time-shifting artifacts known as King Solomon's Frogs. These produce an alternate version of T'Challa from a future 10 years hence, a merry, Panther with a terminal , whom T'Challa places in cryogenic stasis.
Later, while searching for and finding his stepmother Ramonda, the Panther contends with South African authorities during . T'Challa eventually proposes and becomes engaged to Monica Lynne, though the couple never marry.
Years later, the Panther accepts a envoy, , and faces multiple threats to Wakanda's sovereignty. Ross assists him in many of these threats. In gratitude, the Panther often risks much for Ross in return. The first threat he and Ross encounter is "Xcon", an alliance of rogue intelligence agents backing a coup led by the Reverend Achebe. Afterward, Killmonger resurfaces with a plot to destroy Wakanda's economy. This forces T'Challa to foreign companies. Killmonger then defeats him in ritual combat, thus inheriting the role of Black Panther, but falls into a upon eating the heart-shaped herb—poisonous to anyone outside the royal bloodline, which had a hereditary immunity to its toxic effects. T'Challa preserves his rival's life rather than allowing him to die.
Later, T'Challa finds he has a brain aneurysm like his alternate future self, and succumbs to instability and hallucinations. After his mental state almost causes tribal warfare, the Panther hands power to his council and hides in New York City. There he mentors police officer Kasper Cole (who had adopted an abandoned Panther costume), an experience that gives T'Challa the strength to face his illness, reclaim his position, and return to active membership in the Avengers, whom he helps secure special United Nations status.
Main article:The marriage of and the Black Panther. Promotional art for Black Panther #18 (Sept. 2006) by .
T'Challa recounts the story of his ascension as the Black Panther in the fourth volume of his eponymous comic book series. He defeated his uncle during the Black Panther celebration, and during his when he met and fell in love with a street urchin named Ororo in Cairo, Egypt. Unbeknownst to him the US government is planning a coup in order to get access to the vibranium. They allow Klaw to recruit a team of villains in order to support his totalitarian neighbor, Niganda. Klaw recruits , , , and to lead the invasion. The US government then deploys an army of to "support" T'Challa and justify an invasion, but T'Challa kills Klaw and Storm wipes out the Deathlok army in a hurricane.
T'Challa then helps his old flame reunite with her surviving family members in Africa and the U.S. He shortly afterward proposes, and the two are married in a large Wakandan ceremony attended by many superheroes. One of the couple's first tasks is to embark on a diplomatic tour, in which they visit the , Doctor Doom, the , and , with only the last one ending well. After the death of , the Black Panther and Storm side with Captain America's anti-registration forces. During the end battle between both sides, the Wakandan in is heavily damaged, though no Wakandans are hurt. After the confrontation, the Panther and Storm briefly fill in for vacationing Fantastic Four members and before returning to Wakanda.
Upon returning to Wakanda alone, leaving Storm in New York to aid the X-Men, Black Panther faces Erik Killmonger, defeating him with assistance from (a.k.a. Pulsar). Afterward, Wakanda fends off the alien shapeshifters the , who had infiltrated as part of their "" plan to conquer Earth. Prince Namor attempts to recruit T'Challa for the Cabal, a secret council of supervillains. Attacked by the forces of fellow Cabal member Doctor Doom, T'Challa is left comatose. His sister is trained as the next Panther, with the mantle passing onto her officially after T'Challa awakens from his coma and attempts to recover from his injuries.
In the aftermath, T'Challa loses all of his enhanced attributes given to him by being the panther totem. As a result, he works with his sorcerer, Zawavari, to accumulate a replacement. He has since made a pact with another unknown Panther deity, returning his attributes to an even higher level as well as placing incantations on his body, making himself highly resistant to most magic and mystic assaults. This has all been done in preparation for the imminent battle with Doctor Doom, which culminated in T'Challa rendering all of the processed vibranium inert to give his people a chance to rebuild without their dependence on the element.
After the events of "", Matt Murdock (the superhero ) asks T'Challa to replace him as guardian of Hell's Kitchen, which gives T'Challa a chance to discover himself. With the help of , T'Challa assumes the identity of Mr. Okonkwo, an from the and manager of a diner called Devil's Kitchen, so that he can blend in and learn about the denizens as an ordinary man. He gets on well with two of the Kitchen's staff: Sofija, a migrant from who was formerly involved in violent , and the busboy, Brian. He also gets to know some of the neighbors from his apartment block: Mr. Nantakarn and his son Alec, as well as Iris, a social worker assigned to handle cases of child abuse.
T'Challa finds himself up against an ambitious new crime lord, Vlad Dinu, who styles himself "The Impaler". He also seeks an understanding with the police through Detective Alex Kurtz. During an attempt by Vlad to terminate the Panther, Brian from the Devil's Kitchen is seriously injured by an energy blast from Vlad, and is reported dead. The conflict between Vlad and the Panther becomes more personal, especially after Vlad discovers the Panther over his wife Angela dead from a gunshot wound.
T'Challa learns that Iris was the serial shooter who killed abusers of children—Gabe was abused secretly by Angela. Brian was kidnapped by his doctor, Dr. Holman, at the behest of Nicolae who wanted to use someone who received a dose of Vlad's power. After being subjected to torturous experiments, Brian lost the ability to think for himself but was rescued by Gabe who also stole the serum produced from the experiment meant to endow the recipient with Vlad's powers. The Panther obtains evidence of Vlad Dinu's crimes as well as clues to Iris as the serial shooter, and turns the evidence over to Kurtz. Vlad kills his own son Nicolae before being subdued by the Panther. Gabe is arrested for attempting to take Iris' life. Before being taken away, Gabe reveals to the Panther Brian's fate. Though aware of the Panther's identity as Mr. Okonkwo, both Iris and Sofija promise to keep silent.
Shortly after Daredevil returns to Hell's Kitchen, T'Challa returns to Wakanda, serving as a second to his sister, Shuri. In preparation for an upcoming attack on Wakanda as part of the storyline, the Panther God returns T'Challa's abilities. Empowered by the Phoenix, Namor destroys Wakanda with a massive tidal wave. Returning to help, Storm is stunned when the Panther informs her that their marriage has been annulled.
After witnessing an alternate Earth over Wakanda being destroyed by the , T'Challa reforms the Illuminati—with Beast replacing the now-deceased Charles Xavier—to confront the threat of the Incursions, parallel universes colliding with each other to the destruction of both. Although able to avert one Incursion with the Infinity Gauntlet, the subsequent destruction of the Infinity Gems forces the group to decide to resort to more questionable measures to protect Earth from future Incursions, wiping Captain America's mind so that he will not remember these events, allowing them to do "what needs to be done". Although equipped with planet-destroying weapons to protect Earth, the Illuminati mostly become disgusted with the wholesale slaughter, until Namor breaks off from the group to form a new Cabal of villains to do what the heroes will not. Despite Namor's Cabal achieving legitimacy as Earth's protectors, Namor grew weary of the wholesale slaughter they carried out in the name of preserving their universe. Although he collaborated with the Illuminati in a plan to destroy the Cabal by trapping them on the next Earth to be destroyed, Black Panther and Black Bolt left him behind to die with the Cabal, disgusted at his earlier actions, although Namor and the Cabal escape to the when the other Earth has a simultaneous Incursion.
When the final Incursion occurs during the storyline, resulting in all realities collapsing into one Earth, Black Panther is one of the few heroes to survive the Incursion in a specially-designed "life pod"—other survivors including , , , , and a -enhanced —although they are only released into the new world after an eight-year stasis. Retrieved by Doctor Strange, they learn that Strange has assumed a role of "sheriff" to Doctor Doom, who has appointed himself the god of the new "" created from the multiple realities. Although Doom effortlessly kills Cyclops, Strange protects the other heroes by dispersing them across Battleworld, with T'Challa and Namor eventually discovering a new version of the Infinity Gauntlet that Strange collected, ensuring that the Gems he found would work in the location where Doom built his main fortress. Recruiting the as an army, T'Challa marches on Doom at the same time as multiple other areas rebel against him through the encouragement of the heroes, but admits when Doom confronts him that he was only intended as a distraction while Reed targets Doom's power source. As Reed takes Doom's power and sets out to rebuild the multiverse, T'Challa uses the Time Gem to take himself back to Wakanda before the Incursions, proclaiming to his people that they will lead the way to the stars and explore new ideas.
As part of the , Black Panther is a member of the .
During the storyline, Black Panther represents Wakanda on the Space Program's . He sides with Captain Marvel on needing help from an Inhuman who can predict the possible future named Ulysses Kain.Black Panther and Shuri take part in the fight against the Leviathon Tide.
During Hydra's reign over the world led by Arnim Zola, Baron Zemo and Steve Rogers, Panther is captured for opposing this regime, and brought into a containing room. Once Panther and Zemo are alone, Winter Soldier rescues Panther. Panther entrusts the unconscious Zemo to Winter Soldier, while trailing Rogers and Zola into the secret lab. Panther finds out that Zola infused a brainwashed Captain America with a Cosmic Cube using a stolen Stark tech modified by Zola himself, and warns his allies to retreat from a Cosmic Cube-powered Steve Rogers, but is too late. Even though one of the heroes knows they cannot defeat a Cosmic Cube-powered Supreme Hydra Rogers, Winter Soldier, Captain America (Sam Wilson) and Ant-Man (Scott Lang) trick Rogers by surrendering the last fragment of the cube to him. Winter Soldier and Ant-Man steal the cube from Rogers before he uses its full potential, and bring back Kobik and the real Steve Rogers. After the defeat of Supreme Hydra Steve Rogers, Black Panther establishes his quest to go across the universe with his people, and found an Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda on Planet Bast, located in the Benhazin Star System.
The title "Black Panther" is a rank of office, chieftain of the Wakandan Panther Clan. As chieftain, the Panther is entitled to consume a special heart-shaped herb which, in addition to his mystical, connection with the Wakandan Panther God Bast, grants him superhumanly acute senses, enhanced strength, speed, agility, stamina, durability, healing, and reflexes.
He has since lost this connection and forged a new one with another unknown Panther deity, granting him augmented physical attributes as well as a resistance to magic. His senses are so powerful that he can pick up a prey's scent and memorize tens of thousands of individual ones. Following his war with Doom, T'Challa loses his enhanced abilities only to once again establish a connection with the Panther God. In addition to the resurgence of his now superhuman abilities, he is anointed "King of the Dead", granting him the power and knowledge of all the past Black Panthers as well as the ability to control the . After and the resurgence of the Multiverse T'challa eventually showcased new powers in regards to his King of the Dead status, for not only could he reanimate the dead but summon departed spirits into the physical world with tangible form as well. Using these spiritual energies also enables him to conjure a mythical mystical spear of glowing blue energy to his hand.
T'Challa worked with his sorcerer, Zawavari, to endow T'Challa with immunity to mystical attacks and detection in order to defeat Dr. Doom. When T'Challa's alchemical upgrade was tested by means of Wakanda's most powerful acolytes attacking T'Challa in unison, each mystical attack was absorbed and only served to strengthen T'Challa. During these preparations, T'Challa invented a potent mystical-scientific hybrid art called "shadow physics" and was able to use it to craft shadow weapons and to track vibranium on a quantum level.
As king of Wakanda, the Panther has access to a vast collection of magical artifacts, advanced Wakandan technological and military hardware, and the support of his nation's wide array of scientists, warriors, and mystics. The Wakandan military has been described as one of the most powerful on Earth. His attire is the sacred vibranium costume of the Wakandan Panther Cult.
He is a skilled hunter, tracker, strategist, politician, inventor, and . He has a in from . He is proficient in physics and advanced technology, and is also an inventor. T'Challa has been granted the strength and knowledge of every past Black Panther.
T'Challa is rigorously trained in acrobatics and hand-to-hand combat. He is skilled in various forms of unarmed combat, with a unique hybrid fighting style that incorporates acrobatics and aspects of animal mimicry.
The chieftain of the Wakandan Panther Clan is one of the wealthiest people in the world, although financial estimates are difficult given Wakanda's isolation from the world's economy and the uncertain value of Wakanda's vast vibranium reserves and extremely advanced technologies.
In Black Panther volume 3, writer Christopher Priest expanded the Panther's day-to-day arsenal to include equipment such as an "energy dagger", a vibranium-weave suit, and a portable supercomputer, the "Kimoyo card". In Black Panther volume 4, writer Reginald Hudlin introduced such specialized equipment as "thrice-blessed armor" and "light armor" for specific tasks, and for a short while outfitted him with the of the .
The mantle of the Black Panther is passed down from generation to generation among the rulers of Wakanda although it must still be deserved through a severe selection involving the best warriors of the nation.
Bashenga appeared for the first time in Black Panther Vol. 1 #7 (January 1978) by Jack Kirby (scripts and drawings). Wise warrior at the head of the Panther Tribe, according to legends, during the tumult where the vibranium meteorite fell on the soil of the village, then composed of various warring clans, he gathered all the aforementioned under his guide to defeating the inhabitants transformed by the impact into fierce "demonic spirits", a company which has unified the nation by founding Wakanda and becoming its first ruler and the first to obtain the title of "Black Panther" as it tells of his "spiritual connection" with the Goddess Pantera Bast that led to the foundation of the Cult of the Panther.
Chanda appeared for the first time in Fantastic Four Unlimited Vol. 1 #1 (March 1993) by Roy Thomas (scripts) and Herb Trimpe (drawings). Black Panther and ruler of Wakanda during the Second World War, Chanda is the husband of Nanali and father of and ; distinguished by an excessively good and compassionate nature, he welcomed the Nazi colonel Fritz Klaue after he crashed into his reign due to a plane crash. Over time, the two make a kind of friendship and Klaue develops a strong obsession with the culture of Wakanda coming to try to convince them to make their religion deist rather than spiritist, which causes a strong friction between him and Chanda culminating in the death of Nanali by the Nazi and in its subsequent expulsion from the country.
In several subsequent stories, T'Chaka's father (and husband of Nanali) is called Azzuri the Wise and is presented in a completely different way from Chanda, leaving the doubt if it is only a sort of nickname or another character.
T'Chaka appeared for the first time in Fantastic Four Vol. 1 #53 (August 1966) by Stan Lee (script) and Jack Kirby (art). The eldest son of King Azzuri and Queen Nanali, T'Chaka inherits the throne and the title of the Black Panther on his father's death by being helped in his monarch duties by his younger brother and trusted adviser S'Yan. After having married a woman named N'Yami, believing she can not have children, she adopts a child with her, Hunter, however, she later becomes pregnant and dies giving birth to her first child, T'Challa; from the relationship with a woman of another tribe T'Chaka then has a second son, Jakarra, and finally remarries with Ramonda, a woman who grows her children as her own and from whom she has her only daughter, Shuri, but which subsequently disappears into nothingness, leading him to believe that he has abandoned it. To protect the kingdom, T'Chaka instituted a policy of strong isolationism, but in the course of his life he often collaborated with agents of the US government. He is killed by Ulysses Klaw after having surprised him to illegally extract vibranium in his kingdom.
In Black Panther Vol. 3 #15 (February 2000), Erik Killmonger challenges and beats T'Challa in a duel for the throne, overthrowing him as king of Wakanda and taking on the role as the Black Panther. He becomes comatose after attempting to ingest the Heart-shaped Herb to acquire the Black Panther's powers, as he is not of royal blood. Killmonger's time as king is short-lived however, as he is killed by during T'Challa's attack to reclaim Wakanda.
S'Yan The Fast, appeared for the first time in Black Panther Vol. 4 #2 (May, 2005) by Reginald Hudlin (scripts) and John Romita Jr. (drawings). The second son of King Azzuri and Queen Nanali, S'Yan is T'Chaka's younger and trusted advisor, after whose death, although he has no desire to reign, he agrees to ascend the throne until his nephew became an adult. Ironically, S'Yan, who has never wanted to be king, becomes one of the most beloved monarchs in the history of Wakanda but, nevertheless, when T'Challa returns home and obtains the title of Black Panther, he leaves with joy, returning to play the role of royal adviser. He died during the war with Latveria to defend Ramonda from the soldiers of Doctor Doom.
When T'Challa ends up in a coma because of Doctor Doom, Shuri becomes his substitute as Black Panther and queen of Wakanda which, after the rise of her half-brother to "king of the dead", creates for the first time in history two avatars of the Panther Goddess.
Black Panther was ranked the 79th greatest comic book character by magazine. ranked the character the 51st greatest comic book hero, stating that Black Panther could be considered Marvel's equivalent to ; he was also ranked tenth in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers". In 2013, ranked the Black Panther as #33 on their list of the "50 Sexiest Male Characters in Comics".
Journalist Joe Gross praised Christopher Priest for his characterization of the Black Panther, stating, that the writer "turned an underused icon into the locus of a complicated high adventure by taking the Black Panther to his logical conclusion. T'Challa (the title character) is the enigmatic ruler of a technologically advanced, slightly xenophobic African nation, so he acts like it". Gross applauded the title's "endless wit, sharp characterization, narrative sophistication and explosive splash panels".
Comics reviewer and journalist Mike Sangiacomo, however, criticized the narrative structure. "Christopher Priest's fractured writing is getting on my nerves. Like the Spider-Man comics, I want to like Black Panther, but Priest's deliberately jumbled approach to writing is simply silly. I know it's a style, but does he have to do it every issue?"
Reporter Bill Radford cited similar concerns when the title had just launched. "I appreciate the notion of seeing the Black Panther through the eyes of an Everyman, but the Panther is almost relegated to secondary status in his own book. And Ross' narration jumps around in time so much that I feel like his boss, who, in trying to get Ross to tell her what has happened, complains: 'This is like watching "" in rewind. My head is exploding.'"
gave a negative review to the first arc, "Who Is the Black Panther?", a modern retelling of the character's origin, saying, "Hudlin's take is caught between a rock and a hard place. His over-the-top narrative is not likely to appeal to fans of the most recent version of the character, but it's too mired in obscure Marvel continuity to attract the more general reader. The plot manages to be convoluted without ever becoming absorbing".
Journalist Shawn Jeffords, citing the lack of appearances of the title character in the first issue, called the new series a "fairly unimpressive launch". Jeffords also said general-audience unfamiliarity was a hindrance. "He's never been a marquee character and to make him one will be tough".
T'Challa is Coal Tiger, Sersi kills the Avengers and Coal Tiger is the only survivor.
In the story, Black Panther contacts the and informs them that has invaded with an army of Ultron Sentinels.Black Panther was later seen with and in Chicago spying on some Ultron Sentinels. When Taskmaster takes out a Sentinel that was sneaking up on him, alerting the other Sentinels, Red Hulk holds off the Sentinels while Black Panther and Taskmaster flee. During the mayhem, Black Panther falls several stories and breaks his neck, killing him instantly.
Bronze Tiger is the ruler of Wakanda and is named B'Nchalla; an amalgamation of the (DC) and the Black Panther (Marvel).
In , Captain America and visit an alternate future timeline where invaders have ravaged the Earth. An aged Black Panther leads this reality's version of the Avengers, who consist of , , , and .
In an alternate reality where the between Iron Man and Captain America never ended, Black Panther was killed alongside after activating 's self-destruct mechanism. He is succeeded by his son, Azari, who takes on the Black Panther name. It is later revealed that the Black Panther who destroyed Prison 42 was actually Queen of the shape-shifting alien race, who had stolen T'Challa's identity in order to manipulate and prolong the Civil War to suit her own needs.
T'Challa is Chieftain Justice, a member, in Excalibur #44 (1991).
In the alternate universe of , T'Challa has been affected by the mutative event that drives the plot. Like most of humanity, he is mutated; in this case to become a humanoid black panther. He is entrusted with the by Captain America, who knows that T'Challa would be the only one to resist using it and to never give it back if asked. In fact, Captain America does ask for it back and T'Challa is forced to refuse.
An alternate version of Black Panther, called simply "Panther", is drafted onto the interdimensional superhero team the . The Panther is the son of T'Challa and Storm and named T'Chaka, after his grandfather. Originating from Earth-1119, he was ambushed by Klaw while examining some ruins. Caught in Klaw's blast, the Panther was plucked out of time and placed on the team. Unlike the stoic 616-Black Panther, The Panther is a wisecracking flirt. After his assumed death on Earth-1119, his sister took up the mantle of Black Panther.
The Black Panther appears in issues #1 and #6–7 of Marvel Comics/ comic book series based on the .
T'Challa appears in Volume 2 as a man with a pet panther. When summoning the spirits, T'Challa and his panther combine to become the Black Panther. He also became The Falcon. This Black Panther found himself the object of affection of the Mangaverse version of . T'Challa's sister, T'Chana, reveals herself to be this universe's Doctor Doom.
In the continuity, a greatly weakened Wakanda is soon to be governed by its princess, Okusana. Fearing that she is not ready, she requests 's help in resurrecting Thandaza, her grandfather and a former Black Panther. Doom (who claims to have agreed to the proposal out of respect for T'Challa) and the Wakandan scientists revive Thandaza in a cyberbetic body made from vibranium, but the plan goes awry when Mkhalali, the current Panther Guard, opens fire on Thandaza, believing his resurrection to be an abomination. The attack throws off the calibrations and leaves Thandaza in a maddened state and constant pain, causing him to go on a bloody rampage. Doom is ultimately forced to kill Thandaza, who thanks him for ending his suffering.
Black Panther was featured in the one shots, which were not tied to the main 2099 continuity. A new Black Panther, K'Shamba, rose to fight and thwart the mounting invasions by the successor of Doom. While the victory over the new Doom appeared triumphant, the new Wakandan king was ultimately revealed to be a puppet of Doom.
Black Panther is, for the most part, one of the few uninfected superheroes in the alternate-universe series , where he is kept as a food supply for the Zombie , who keeps the Panther imprisoned and cuts off various limbs so that he can maintain his intelligence via a ready access to fresh meat without infecting Panther with the zombie "virus". Despite having lost half of his right arm and his left foot, the Panther escapes—with the severed head of zombified superheroine the in tow—and joins forces with the mutant group the . While with the Acolytes, T'Challa briefly talks with his Earth-616 counterpart, where he expresses surprise at his marriage to Storm but offers him all the information he can provide about the zombie plague. Decades later, T'Challa has married one of the Acolytes, Lisa Hendricks, and they have a son, with having provided T'Challa with artificial limbs to compensate for his injuries. Facing retirement, the Panther is stabbed and critically wounded by an agent of an Acolyte splinter group, and the Wasp— now a willing ally after having lost her zombie hunger— zombifies the Panther in order to grant him continued existence. With the Wasp's help, he survives to the post-hunger stage himself and continues to lead his people, despite his status. Further internal betrayal lead the Black Panther and many of his allies to be tossed through the dimensions. He ends up involved with another Earth that is threatened by the zombie virus. His attempts to save this new planet fail and he is destroyed, leaving only one hand displayed as a trophy by his enemies.
In the universe, Black Panther has a son named T'Chaka II, who joined the as the .
In the reality, Black Panther had the appearance of a humanoid black panther. He is among the second wave of heroes who died fighting the Beyonder.
In the , the Black Panther is T'Challa Udaku, a young man who is experimented on in the program before being liberated by .
T'Challa, the younger son of King T'Chaka of Wakanda, is severely injured during the "Trial of the Panther" from which the protector of the nation is selected. His older brother M'Baku finds T'Challa bloodied, mute, and near death but derisively calls him a fool for attempting the trial. Later, M'Baku adds that he, not T'Challa, should have taken the trial. Angry that his father has decided to share Wakanda's technology in exchange for America's help in saving T'Challa's life, M'Baku leaves the kingdom.
To save T'Challa, T'Chaka turns him over to the Weapon X program. Over a year later, a healthy T'Challa, in his full Black Panther garb, has enhanced speed, strength, night vision, and healing ability. Additionally, he can summon short, cat-like claws from his knuckles by balling his hands into fists. T'Chaka becomes outraged upon learning that (who had shut down Weapon X and freed T'Challa) now considers his son an asset of the U.S. and S.H.I.E.L.D. He subsequently sends M'Baku a letter, claiming that M'Baku, not T'Challa, is the titular "favorite son", and he implores M'Baku to return.
Fury has Captain America train and mentor the Panther, who reveals his damaged throat. Captain America, sympathizing for the Panther's plight, encourages Fury to place the Panther in the superhero team the . This turns out to be a ruse in which Captain America impersonates the Panther, allowing T'Challa to escape and return home to Wakanda.
Captain America later impersonates Black Panther during an Ultimates confrontation with the .
After Ultimatum, Black Panther joins the .
portrays T'Challa within the , first appearing in (2016). In the film, he is shown displaying enhanced speed, agility, strength, and durability, which he gains from ingesting the heart-shaped herb, as in the comics. His suit has retractable claws and is made of a vibranium weave, which can deflect heavy machine gun fire. As of , he wears a new variant of the suit that can absorb kinetic energy (represented as purple highlights) and release it as a purple shockwave after enough has been amassed. It can also fold into a silver necklace.
Boseman will return in the (2019).
In 2016, launched on its channel the motion comic "Black Panther in ... The Visitor".