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One Direction are an English-Irish based in , composed of , , , , and, until his departure from the band in 2015, . The group signed with 's record label after forming and finishing third in the of the British televised singing competition in 2010. Propelled to international success by , One Direction's five albums, (2011), (2012), (2013), (2014), and (2015), topped charts in most major markets, and generated hit singles including "", "", "", "" and "".

The group has received numerous including seven , four s, six s, seven (including in 2014 and 2015), and 28 . In 2013, they earned an estimated million becoming the second highest earning celebrity under 30 according to . The (IFPI) honored them as the .Forbes ranked them as the fourth in the world in 2015, and second in 2016.

After the release of Four, One Direction became the first band in the US history to have their first four albums debut at number one. Their third album, Midnight Memories, was the best-selling album worldwide in 2013 with 4 million copies sold globally. The band's in support of Midnight Memories and Four, was the in 2014, the highest-grossing tour by a vocal group in history, and the 18th of all time, grossing 0.2 million (unadjusted for inflation). In 2014, named One Direction Artist of the Year. The band went on hiatus in January 2016, allowing all members to pursue other projects. As of 2017, the band has sold a total of 50 million records worldwide.

Contents

History

2010–2011: The X Factor

One Direction on The X Factor Live tour in 2011

In 2010, , , , , and auditioned as solo candidates for the of the British televised singing competition . They failed to progress to the "Boys" category at "" but were put together to form a five-piece boy band at , in London, England, in July 2010, during the "" stage of the competition, thus qualifying for the "Groups" category. , a guest judge, and Simon Cowell have both claimed to have come up with the idea of forming the band. In 2013, Cowell said that it "took him 10 minutes to put them together as a group". Subsequently, the group got together for two weeks to get to know each other and to practice. Styles came up with the name One Direction. For their qualifying song at "judges' houses", and their first song as a group, One Direction sang an acoustic version of "". Cowell later commented that their performance convinced him that they "were confident, fun, like a gang of friends, and kind of fearless as well." Within the first four weeks of the , they were his last act in the competition. The group quickly gained popularity in the UK.

One Direction achieved third place in the competition and immediately after the final, their song "", which would have been released if they had won The X Factor, was leaked onto the internet. Shortly afterwards it was confirmed that One Direction had been signed by Cowell to a reported 2 million record contract. Recording for their debut album began in January 2011, as they flew to Los Angeles to work with , a record producer. A book licensed by One Direction, One Direction: Forever Young (Our Official X Factor Story), was published by in February 2011, subsequently topping . The same month, the boy band and other contestants from the series participated in the X Factor Live Tour. During the tour, the group performed for 500,000 people throughout the UK. After the tour concluded in April 2011, the group continued working on their debut album. Recording took place in Stockholm, London and Los Angeles, as One Direction worked with producers , , , and , among others.

2011–2012: Up All Night

Released in September 2011, One Direction's debut single, "", reached number one on the , after becoming the most pre-ordered single in history. Subsequent singles, "" and "", peaked in the UK Singles Chart top ten. In November 2011, they signed a record deal with in North America., the co-chairman of Columbia Records, said it was not a difficult decision to sign One Direction; "I just thought there was a void, and maybe they could seize and hold it." "What Makes You Beautiful" was released in the United States in February 2012, where it debuted on the at number 28, becoming the highest debut for a British act since 1998. It has sold over 4 million copies in the US Upon arrival in the US in February 2012, One Direction embarked on a radio promotion spree, as well as their first North American concert tour as an opening act for . They made their first US television appearance on , at the ; an estimated 15,000 fans descended on the plaza. Critically commended for its appeal to the teenage audience,One Direction's first studio album, , was released globally in early 2012. It became the UK's fastest-selling debut album of 2011, and topped the charts in sixteen countries. The album bowed atop the chart, making One Direction the first British group in US chart history to enter at number one with their debut album. They were inducted into the as a result.Up All Night also became the first album by a boy band to sell 500,000 digital copies in the US and, by August 2012, had sold over 3 million copies worldwide.

In April 2012, an American band that went by the same name filed a lawsuit. According to the lawsuit, the US band had been using the name since 2009, recorded two albums and filed an application to register the trademark name in the US in February 2011. The US band said they were entitled to three times the profits made by the UK band, as well as compensatory damages in excess of US million. The lawsuit claimed that Syco and Sony Music "chose to ignore the plaintiff's rights and wilfully infringed them" after they realised in early 2011 that the two bands shared the same name. Syco Records subsequently counter-sued, suggesting the US group was trying to make money from One Direction's success and that the boy band was the first to use the name in US interstate commerce. The reported in September 2012 that the UK group won the legal dispute over the right to keep using their band name; the US band changed its name to Uncharted Shores. The change of name was announced in a joint statement that also noted both groups were happy with the outcome.

In December 2011, One Direction embarked on their first headlining UK concert tour, the . In early 2012, they announced Australasian and North American legs of the concert tour, with dates from April to July 2012. The tour, comprising 62 shows, was met with positivity both critically and commercially. A recording of a concert from the tour, , was released in May 2012. In addition to the DVD topping the charts in twenty-five countries, its global sales had exceeded 1 million copies by August 2012.One Direction's first book to be licensed in America, Dare to Dream: Life as One Direction, published in the United States in May 2012, topped . In June 2012, Nick Gatfield, the chairman and chief executive officer of , stated how he expects One Direction to represent a 0 million business empire over 2013. Gatfield was quoted as saying, "What you might not know about One Direction is that they already represent a  million business and that's a figure we expect to double next year". In August 2012, the group's record sales exceeded 8 million singles, 3 million albums, and 1 million DVDs, and they performed "What Makes You Beautiful" at the in London, which represented the handover to Rio de Janeiro as the host of the .One Direction were the biggest winners of the winning their three nominations on 6 September 2012, including .

2012–2013: Take Me Home

One Direction's second studio album, , was released in November 2012.Take Me Home was written in groups and has an average of just under five songwriters per track. Savan Kotecha, Rami Yacoub, and Carl Falk, who composed One Direction's hits "What Makes You Beautiful" and "One Thing", spent six months in Stockholm developing songs for the album, and were able to shape melodies around their tones.One Direction began recording the album in May 2012, in Stockholm at Kinglet Studios. The album cover artwork features the group surrounding a traditional British K2 , a familiar sight on the streets of the UK.Take Me Home garnered mixed reviews from . There was praise for its quality of production, while it was criticised for its generic, rushed nature. The album's lead single, "", released in September 2012, reached the top ten in almost every country it charted in and recorded the highest one-week opening sales figure for a song by a non-US artist in the US The album and its second single, "", both debuted at number one in the UK simultaneously; something that One Direction became the youngest act in British chart history to achieve.Take Me Home sold 540,000 copies in its first week in the US, debuted atop the Billboard 200, and topped the charts in more than thirty-four other countries. Additionally, Up All Night and Take Me Home were the number three and number four best-selling albums of 2012 globally, each album selling over 5 million units worldwide.

One Direction performed "Little Things" at the 2012 in the presence of , and headlined a sold-out show at New York City's on 3 December 2012. In February 2013, One Direction released a cover version of "" and "", "", as the 2013 single. As part of their involvement with the UK charity, One Direction travelled to Ghana to volunteer at a children's hospital, visit a school and make donations.

The revealed that One Direction had sold 2,425,000 records in the UK by February 2013.One Direction embarked on their second concert tour in February 2013, the . The concert tour consists of over 100 shows in Europe, North America and Australasia. Ticket sales reached 300,000 within a day of release in the UK and Ireland, which included a six-date sell-out at in London. In the Australian and New Zealand markets, tickets grossed US.7 million, with all 190,000 tickets being sold for the eighteen shows to be held. The tour received critical acclaim from music critics who praised the band's live vocals and their performance abilities and was a commercial success, selling 1,635,000 tickets from 134 shows.

2013–2014: Midnight Memories and This Is Us

, a 3D documentary and concert film about the group directed by and produced by Spurlock, Ben Winston, Adam Milano and Simon Cowell, was released by on 30 August 2013. The film features the song "", released on 22 July 2013. "Best Song Ever" was the lead single of the group's third studio album . The film was a box office success, topping the UK and US box offices and grossing over  million worldwide, and became the fourth highest-grossing concert movie. "Best Song Ever" broke the with 10.9 million views on YouTube (this was the second time the band held the record with "Live While We're Young" attaining 8.2 million views on 20 September 2012). On 16 May 2013, the band announced their first stadium tour, the Where We Are Tour, which began in April 2014. On 30 May 2013, the band announced a partnership with on a limited-edition capsule collection of back to school supplies. They also confirmed that a portion of the proceeds from the alliance would go toward an anti-bullying educational program intended to promote kinder behaviour in schools.

The band performing in , New Jersey on 2 July 2013

On 23 November 2013, in support of Midnight Memories, the band participated in "1D Day", a day dedicated to One Direction fans. The day constituted of a landmark 7.5-hour socially interactive YouTube live-stream featuring live band performances, celebrity guests including, , , , and many more. The event was unique not only because of its long runtime but the unprecedented use of social media whereby fans got to participate in the show interact directly with the band via .

Midnight Memories was released globally on 25 November 2013. It debuted at number one in the UK and in the US, making them the first group to debut at number one on the with its first three albums, and the second to reach the top after in 1967. The album was described by the band as edgier and as having a "slightly rockier tone" than their previous efforts. "" was revealed as the second single of the album with each member posting a photo from their childhood. To promote the album, the band performed on both the and versions of The X Factor.

In December 2013, One Direction broke yet another UK sales record with the DVD and release of their . Nearly 270,000 copies of the film were sold in the UK within three days of its release, beating the record previously set by in 2010 by 10,000 copies. The group was named among the Top Global artists of 2013 by the because of strong digital downloads, physical albums, on-demand streams, and music videos.

2014–2015: Four and Malik's departure

On 21 July 2014, One Direction announced , a film which documents the concerts of 28 and 29 June 2014 that took place in during their . After the announcement, the band announced the film would also have a limited 10–11 October 2014 international cinema release before its home media release in November 2014. The group also released an autobiography book titled Who We Are on 25 September 2014.

On 8 September 2014, One Direction announced their fourth studio album to be titled , set to be released on 17 November 2014. As part of the announcement, one of the songs from the album, "Fireproof" was released for free download for 24 hours on their official website. "", the album's lead single, was released on 29 September 2014, and the music video was released on 24 October 2014. The second single from the album, "", was released on 14 November, three days before the album's release.Four was released on 17 November 2014, topping the and the .

On 22 November 2014, Paul Higgins, the group's tour manager who has been with them since its formation, parted ways with the band. The band confirmed at the that following the success of Four, they had hopes to continue to go "somewhere else" on their fifth album. In support of Midnight Memories and Four, the band's Where We Are Tour was the in 2014, the highest-grossing tour by a vocal group in history, and the 18th of all time, grossing 0.2 million worldwide.

On 25 March 2015, the band released a statement announcing Malik's departure. They admitted that they were angry at first because of 's decision. The group made their first official public appearance as a four-piece on on 14 May, where they confirmed that they would continue working without a new fifth member. Since leaving the band, Malik has gone on to have solo success with his number one debut single "" and album .

2015–present: Made in the A.M. and hiatus

On 31 July 2015, the group released "" without promotional material or announcement. The single is the first single from their fifth studio album, , and the first material released by the group after Malik's departure. Following the release, it was revealed that the group would going on hiatus in 2016 to take a break. On 22 September, the title for the fifth studio album, Made in the A.M., was officially announced along with promotional single "" being released. The group began to reveal the track listing on their stories to which it was later confirmed on . The album was released on 13 November 2015. At the 2015 on 22 November, One Direction won the award for for the second year in succession.Louis Tomlinson later confirmed that the break would be around 18 months. On 13 December, One Direction performed on The X Factor final. Their last televised performance as a group, before their hiatus, was on on 31 December 2015.

On 13 January 2016, published a report claiming that the group's hiatus would become a permanent split, with a "source" citing that each of the four remaining group members did not renew their contracts following the completion of the On The Road Again Tour in October 2015. Representatives for the group denied said-report in a statement to Billboard, stating, "nothing has changed regarding hiatus plans for the group, and all will be revealed in due time from the band members' own mouths." By May 2017, all members of the group had released solo singles. Despite saying the hiatus would last 18 months, the band still are yet to confirm when they will reform.

At the , One Direction won the Video of the Year award for their song "". Payne accepted the award on the behalf of the band. In February 2018, it was reported that the group has folded its touring company after having applied for removal within the registry in October 2017.

Artistry

One Direction's debut studio album, Up All Night (2011), is predominantly a pop music record, containing elements of , , , with and rock influences.'s Robert Copsey described the album as a "collection of PG pop rock with killer choruses", while considered it "full of easy rock-inflected pop, blithe and sometimes clever." Jason Lipshutz of Billboard acknowledged that the album demonstrates an originality in sound that was "necessary for the revitalization of the boy band movement". The songs "One Thing" and "What Makes You Beautiful" were particularly noted for the genres of power pop and pop rock, for their "powerhouse" and "forceful" choruses.

Their second studio album, Take Me Home (2012), is characterised by rock-inherited pop, prominent electric guitar riffs, bright synthesisers, a sound and message, and the pitch-correcting software . of interpreted its signature sound as a "peppy, -bolstered take on early-80s pop, heavy on clipped rhythms and chugging guitars," which, he said, is at least an improvement on the substitute "that was once the grim lot of the boyband." Jon Caramanica, writing in The New York Times, considered the album "far more mechanical" than their debut album, although noted that it is sonically and lyrically similar. The album's lyricism speaks of falling in love, , the insistence that flaws are what make a person unique, commitment, jealousy and longing for past significant others.

Erica Futterman for favoured their live performances as both showing, "Horan's ability to play guitar, as well as One Direction's admirable live vocals. There was no need to worry about a backing track or a bum note, a pleasant realization at a pop show."'s Cameron Adams opined that One Direction have "strong pop voices". Melody Lau of the wrote, "It's easy to get lost in inherent appeal of their perfectly coiffed dos and almost-too-put-together preppy style but somewhere in the midst of all the love-struck squeals of teenage girls are guys who can actually sing and, to a certain extent, entertain." Jane Stevenson of the portal site concurred: "What I didn't really prepare myself for was that they all can actually sing in concert." Chris Richards, writing in , dissented from the approval: "As the five traded couplets, it was tough to imagine a future , or emerging from the pack. No one voice stood out." Mike Wass of felt One Direction's "surprisingly accomplished effort" of 's "" proved that One Direction are "more than capable" of evolving their sound.

Their third album Midnight Memories (2013) is a pop rock record, a slight departure from the band's original teen pop sound. Liam Payne called Midnight Memories a "slightly rockier and edgier" album than their previous material. The album is heavily influenced by 80's rock and folk music and briefly integrates elements of dubstep, notably in "Little White Lies". The album's lyrical themes primarily revolve around love, heartbreak and sexual intercourse. Many critics praised its lyrical depth and musical composition, as well as the group's level of involvement in the production process.

Their fourth album Four (2014) was released on 17 November 2014. Payne once again claimed that the album would be "edgier" and that the group had written most of the songs for it; Horan came up with the name of the album, commemorating the fact that it is One Direction's fourth record to date and that it has been four years since the band's formation. Signifying a further maturation of their pop sound, the album's first single, , was dubbed by as "no , but its -like piano pop could be a good direction", and that the band was "not entirely ready to let go of its bubble-gum days". described the record as "saturated with retro vibes"; its songs "split the difference between big, splashy Eighties and more elegant Seventies flavours – a very pesky whipper-snapper move that's not so far from what 's hit did last year."

Other ventures

Endorsements

In 2011, One Direction became the face of , starring in a series of television adverts. They were the first installments in the fifth of the series of role-playing games. They also launched and phones. To promote the launch has made a series of photos of the band members using the phones to take photos of themselves.

In 2012, They teamed up with to launch their own One Direction Colgate MaxFresh Power Toothbrush, the One Direction Colgate Maxfresh Manual Toothbrush, and the One Direction Colgate MaxFresh Toothpaste. The band was signed by in a multi-million dollar advertising deal in 2012. Pepsi's 'Live for Now' campaign starring One Direction battling player has premiered on the brand's social media channels. It aired on TV in the US during the playoffs, , NFL season and , which is sponsored by Pepsi Max. Additional social media marketing includes a tie up with , whereby consumers that use the digital music app in conjunction with the ad both on TV and online will be able to view exclusive content and link back to to buy One Direction’s single, ''. Mini figures based on members of the group was launched for the band's US fans after the agreement was signed by American firm .'s girls business posted a 23 percent quarterly revenue gain, with One Direction products, such as dolls and a board game tied to the boy band, and toys contributing to the growth. The band has signed up to endorse Filipino clothing brand, .

In 2013, one direction have announced that fans will get a chance to enter their very own 1D World in their brand new pop-up shop. The store will sell exclusive never seen before merchandise. One offer will be life-size cardboard cut-outs of the boys, phone cases, T-shirts and even the 1D Onesie. The pop-up 1D World stores have become a huge success around the world, opening up in cities including Brisbane, Toronto, Vancouver, Chicago and Stockholm. became the title sponsor of One Direction’s North American tour The band became the new faces of , releasing behind-the-scenes look at their commercial for the vehicle.One Direction's debut fragrance, , launched exclusively at and in their website, due to the band's busy schedule, the boys will not be in attendance at the in-store launch. There were 4-second trailers released from the week beginning Monday 12 August, one for each member. The full length advert for the fragrance was released on 24 August 2013. It features the song "" which originally by from covered by . Payne has reported that the idea came from a fan's petition. "A Twitter fan started an online petition for us to launch a fragrance, and we talked to our management", he said. The perfume is the best selling famous fragrance of Christmas 2013. Its sales have beaten fragrances from other celebrities such as 's , 's and ' .

In 2014, following the success of their previous scent , the band has creatively named their second scent That Moment. The news was delivered via a video featuring Styles. There will be a matching shower gel and body lotion. The band released a short, 6-minute film to promote the new fragrance. They released a commercial for their third fragrance, "You & I." The name, taken from their hit of the same name. The announcement of the fragrance commercial was teased on , with pieces of the cover art which shows all five of the guys being tweeted out one at a time. The commercial, which premiered on the One Direction fragrance site, is a bit goofier than "J'adore Dior," In the clip, a hexagonal pink bottle can be seen sitting in the centre of a highly fortified white room with motion lasers covering the floor. The boys are seen entering through the ceiling, suspended by wires and clad in all-black.

In 2015, One Direction appeared in an advert for the . the commercial aired in Thailand. Mexico launched the session and full interview with One Direction, with a series of commercials in which Tomlinson, Payne, Styles and Horan showed us what it means to be a True Friend.One Direction revealed their fourth fragrance ‘Between Us’ at The Sanderson in London, England on 24 June. Along with the bottle image, the band released a new commercial. Between Us comes after the band’s successful fragrances , That Moment and You & I, which was the US’s number one celebrity women’s fragrance launch of 2014. The band appeared in a ad, testing the out for all the group's pop-star needs. The TV spot shows the quartet testing out the car's stereo, style and trunk space with a humorous tone and the tagline "It's all One Direction approved." The ad is set to the 1D single . The commercial celebrates the launch of the new 2016 Honda Civic sedan and coincides with the release of One Direction's new album, . The group's 2015 U.S. tour was also supported by .

Philanthropy

In 2011, the band performed on the BBC's charity telethon, helping raise over 26 million pounds. In 2012 they extended their involvement with Children in Need as they opened the telecast with a performance of their single "". A prominent annual event in , the group said it was "incredible" to be involved in as it was something that they had "always watched as children".

In February 2013, One Direction released "" (a medley of "" and "") as the 2013 single for the UK's other major charity telethon . For 's Santa charity Christmas campaign, they filmed a set of pleas to their fans and the general public, asking them to donate £2. The band have made numerous other appearances for charitable causes, including the 2011 where they presented 13-year-old quadruple amputee Danielle Bailey the Child of Courage award at her school assembly, and the 2014 where they played in front of and at the London Palladium.

In September 2012, Niall Horan organised an event to raise money for Irish Autism Action and another charity, called Temporary Emergency Accommodation Mullingar, based in his hometown. Due to overwhelming demand to participate in the fundraising, the ticket website for the event broke down. Horan's brother Greg commented on the website crash, saying that "there were 500 tickets and they were all snapped up pretty quick".

In 2013, band members Liam Payne and Harry Styles partnered with Trekstock, a leading cancer charity to help raise money for cancer research. As ambassadors of the charity, the duo collaborated to offer the chance for one fan and a friend to win an evening out with them in return for a donation to the charity as part of an exclusive "#HangwithLiam&Harry" global campaign. They had originally set a goal of raising 0,000 and ended up raising 4,984. Trekstock later added that this amount would allow them to "complete funding of their trial, in the hope of offering a much brighter future to thousands of children and young people affected by this form of disease." One Direction were named the most charitable in 2013 behind by social change organisation .

In 2014, One Direction donated £600,000 for the Stand up to Cancer campaign by giving portions of their ticket sales revenues from their . On 15 November 2014, One Direction joined the charity group along with other British and Irish pop acts, recording the latest version of the track "" at in , London, to raise money for the in Western Africa.

In 2015, One Direction launched 'Action 1D' campaign to raise awareness of global issues. The initiative aims to end extreme poverty, tackle inequality and slow down climate change with the help of their millions of fans. It is part of the wider campaign, a global citizen’s movement that is all about the idea that 2015 can be the year when the world can set the agenda to end major global issues. One Direction will be asking their fans to describe the kind of world they want to live in by sharing powerful pieces of creative content, including videos and photos, using the hashtag #Action1D. The quartet also starred in a campaign video, appealing to fans to join the movement.

Image

One Direction greet Swedish fans in , May 2012 A One Direction merchandising shop in in March 2013.

Neil McCormick of , in an article on One Direction's success in North America, notes that Americans had left a gap in the market and it took the prominence of to demonstrate that there still was a market for "clean cut, wholesome, whiter-than-white, middle class parent friendly pop: cute boys advocating puppy love. And what could be better than one cute boy, if not five?"One Direction have been described as sparking a resurgence in the interest in boy bands, and as forming part of a new "" in the United States. Bill Werde, a representative of magazine, commented, "There's a lot of possibility here, there's a lot of upside, that level of talent with those kinds of looks, it's really a perfect storm for a massive, massive successful phenomenon."

Sonny Takhar, the chief executive officer of Syco Records, attributes the breakthrough to the power of . "Sometimes you feel the song's the star, but it's not like that here – it's the act," he said. "It's a real moment. Social media has become the new radio, it's never broken an act globally like this before." Will Bloomfield, the group's manager, added, "These guys live online, and so do their fans." Their management employs a social media team and the members all tweet themselves, "which helps create the illusion that they couldn't be any closer to their fans," according to Caspar Llewellyn Smith, writing for The Guardian.One Direction's Twitter account had amassed 10 million followers by February 2013, with the account gaining followers at an average of 21,000 per day. In an approach pioneered by , each member is known for his feature; Horan is "the cute one", Malik is "the quiet and mysterious one", Payne is "the sensible one", Styles is "the charming one" and Tomlinson is "the funny one". Each member's individual identity is reinforced by their intentionally different personal styles. Caroline Watson, the band's original stylist, spoke about styling the band, "At the beginning I didn't want them all in black or all in leather—that whole stereotypical boy band thing." Instead, her original idea was for them to be the "male equivalent to the ", with each member being a part of the group but still having his own individual style. Horan commented on One Direction as a boy band, "People think that a boy band is air-grabs and [being] dressed in all one colour. We're boys in a band. We're trying to do something different from what people would think is the typical kind of boy band. We're trying to do different kinds of music and we're just trying to be ourselves, not squeaky clean." Leah Collins, writing for the , remarked that One Direction had succeeded on the latter front, "For the most part, that just means the group presents themselves as typical, goofy and uncensored teenage boys – posting jokey YouTube videos, for instance, or boozing at awards shows." Writing for , opined, "One Direction fulfill a great many boy band prerequisites (looks, soppy lyrics, tune-grasp, fame-lust) but their lack of routines points to the subtle digressions afoot here".

Discography

Main articles: and

Filmography

Tours

Awards and nominations

Main article:

One Direction has received seven , seven , six ,, five , and four , among other awards. One Direction holds the record as the most awarded act at the with 28 wins from 31 nominations.

See also

Publications

  • One Direction: Forever Young, HarperCollins (17 February 2011)  
  • One Direction: The Official Annual 2012, HarperCollins (1 September 2011)  
  • Dare to Dream: Life as One Direction, HarperCollins (15 September 2011)  
  • One Direction: Where We Are: Our Band, Our Story: 100% Official, HarperCollins (19 November 2013)  
  • One Direction: Who We Are: Our Official Autobiography, HarperCollins (25 September 2014)  

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