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Classical Period 1544-1603
English hypothesized that the Earth is a giant magnet 1564-1642
Italian performed fundamental observations, experiments, and mathematical analyses in astronomy and physics; discovered mountains and craters on the moon, the phases of Venus, and the four largest satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede 1580-1626
Dutch discovered law of refraction (Snell's law) 1623-1662
French discovered that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every part of the fluid and to the walls of its container (Pascal's principle) 1629-1695
Dutch proposed a simple geometrical wave theory of light, now known as ``Huygen's principle''; pioneered use of the pendulum in clocks 1635-1703
English discovered Hooke's law of elasticity 1643-1727
English developed theories of gravitation and mechanics, and invented differential calculus 1700-1782
Swiss developed the fundamental relationship of fluid flow now known as Bernoulli's principle 1706-1790
American the first American physicist; characterized two kinds of electric charge, which he named ``positive'' and ``negative'' 1707-1783
Swiss made fundamental contributions to fluid dynamics, lunar orbit theory (tides), and mechanics; also contributed prolifically to all areas of classical mathematics 1731-1810
British discovered and studied hydrogen; first to measure Newton's gravitational constant; calculated mass and mean density of Earth 1736-1806
French experiments on elasticity, electricity, and magnetism; established experimentally nature of the force between two charges 1736-1813
French developed new methods of analytical mechanics 1736-1819
Scottish invented the modern condensing steam engine and a centrifugal governor 1745-1827
Italian pioneer in study of electricity; invented the first electric battery 1768-1830
French established the differential equation governing heat diffusion and solved it by devising an infinite series of sines and cosines capable of approximating a wide variety of functions 1773-1829
British studied light and color; known for his double-slit experiment that demonstrated the wave nature of light 1774-1862
French studied polarization of light; co-discovered that intensity of magnetic field set up by a current flowing through a wire varies inversely with the distance from the wire 1775-1836
French father of electrodynamics 1776-1856
Italian developed hypothesis that all gases at same volume, pressure, and temperature contain same number of atoms 1777-1855
German formulated separate electrostatic and electrodynamical laws, including ``Gauss' law''; contributed to development of number theory, differential geometry, potential theory, theory of terrestrial magnetism, and methods of calculating planetary orbits 1777-1851
Danish discovered that a current in a wire can produce magnetic effects 1781-1868
English deduced ``Brewster's law'' giving the angle of incidence that produces reflected light which is completely polarized; invented the kaleidoscope and the stereoscope, and improved the spectroscope 1788-1827
French studied transverse nature of light waves 1789-1854
German discovered that current flow is proportional to potential difference and inversely proportional to resistance (Ohm's law) 1791-1867
English discovered electromagnetic induction and devised first electrical transformer 1791-1841
French co-discovered that intensity of magnetic field set up by a current flowing through a wire varies inversely with the distance from the wire 1796-1832
French founded the science of thermodynamics 1797-1878
American performed extensive fundamental studies of electromagnetic phenomena; devised first practical electric motor 1803-1853
Austrian experimented with sound waves; derived an expression for the apparent change in wavelength of a wave due to relative motion between the source and observer 1804-1891
German developed sensitive magnetometers; worked in electrodynamics and the electrical structure of matter 1805-1865
Irish developed the principle of least action and the Hamiltonian form of classical mechanics 1818-1889
British discovered mechanical equivalent of heat 1819-1896
French made the first terrestrial measurement of the speed of light; invented one of the first interferometers; took the first pictures of the Sun on daguerreotypes; argued that the Doppler effect with respect to sound should also apply to any wave motion, particularly that of light 1819-1868
French accurately measured speed of light; invented the gyroscope; demonstrated the Earth's rotation 1819-1903
British described the motion of viscous fluids by independently discovering the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics (or hydrodynamics); developed Stokes theorem by which certain surface integrals may be reduced to line integrals; discovered fluorescence 1821-1894
German developed first law of thermodynamics, a statement of conservation of energy 1822-1888
German developed second law of thermodynamics, a statement that the entropy of the Universe always increases
(born William Thomson) 1824-1907
British proposed absolute temperature scale, of essence to development of thermodynamics 1824-1887
German developed three laws of spectral analysis and three rules of electric circuit analysis; also contributed to optics 1825-1898
Swiss developed empirical formula to describe hydrogen spectrum 1828-1914
British developed a carbon-filament incandescent light; patented the carbon process for printing photographs in permanent pigment 1831-1879
Scottish propounded the theory of electromagnetism; developed the kinetic theory of gases 1835-1893
Austrian studied blackbody radiation 1838-1916
Austrian studied conditions that occur when an object moves through a fluid at high speed (the ``Mach number'' gives the ratio of the speed of the object to the speed of sound in the fluid); proposed ``Mach's principle,'' which states that the inertia of an object is due to the interaction between the object and the rest of the universe 1839-1903
American developed chemical thermodynamics; introduced concepts of free energy and chemical potential 1842-1923
British liquified nitrogen and invented the Dewar flask, which is critical for low-temperature work 1842-1912
British contributed to the fields of hydraulics and hydrodynamics; developed mathematical framework for turbulence and introduced the ``Reynolds number,'' which provides a criterion for dynamic similarity and correct modeling in many fluid-flow experiments 1844-1906
Austrian developed statistical mechanics and applied it to kinetic theory of gases 1848-1919
Hungarian demonstrated equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass 1850-1925
English contributed to the development of electromagnetism; introduced operational calculus and invented the modern notation for vector calculus; predicted existence of the Heaviside layer (a layer of the Earth's ionosphere) 1851-1901
Irish hypothesized foreshortening of moving bodies (Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction) to explain the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment 1852-1914
British demonstrated that the energy flow of electromagnetic waves could be calculated by an equation (now called Poynting's vector) 1854-1912
French founded qualitative dynamics (the mathematical theory of dynamical systems); created topology; contributed to solution of the three-body problem; first described many properties of deterministic chaos; contributed to the development of special relativity 1854-1919
Swedish analyzed the spectra of many elements; discovered many line series were described by a formula that depended on a universal constant (the Rydberg constant) 1855-1938
American discovered the ``Hall effect,'' which occurs when charge carriers moving through a material are deflected because of an applied magnetic field - the deflection results in a potential difference across the side of the material that is transverse to both the magnetic field and the current direction 1857-1894
German worked on electromagnetic phenomena; discovered radio waves and the photoelectric effect 1857-1943
Serbian-born American created alternating current Nobel Laureates 1837-1923
Dutch worked on equations of state for gases and liquids
(born John William Strutt) 1842-1919
British discovered argon; explained how light scattering is responsible for red color of sunset and blue color of sky 1845-1923
German discovered and studied x rays 1852-1908
French discovered natural radioactivity 1852-1931
German-born American devised an interferometer and used it to try to measure Earth's absolute motion; precisely measured speed of light 1853-1928
Dutch introduced Lorentz transformation equations of special relativity; advanced ideas of relativistic length contraction and relativistic mass increase; contributed to theory of electromagnetism 1853-1926
Dutch liquified helium; discovered superconductivity 1856-1940
British demonstrated existence of the electron 1858-1947
German formulated the quantum theory; explained wavelength distribution of blackbody radiation 1859-1906
French studied radioactivity with wife, Marie Curie; discovered piezoelectricity 1862-1942
British worked on x-ray spectrometry 1862-1947
German studied cathode rays and the photoelectric effect 1864-1928
German discovered laws governing radiation of heat 1865-1943
Dutch discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong magnetic field 1867-1934
Polish-born French discovered radioactivity of thorium; co-discovered radium and polonium 1868-1953
American measured the charge of an electron; introduced term ``cosmic rays'' for the radiation coming from outer space; studied the photoelectric effect 1869-1959
British invented the cloud chamber 1870-1942
French experimentally proved that cathode rays were streams of negatively charged particles; experimentally confirmed the correctness of Einstein's theory of Brownian motion, and through his measurements obtained a new determination of Avogadro's number 1871-1937
New Zealander theorized existence of the atomic nucleus based on results of the alpha-scattering experiment performed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden; developed theory of Rutherford scattering (scattering of spinless, pointlike particles from a Coulomb potential) 1874-1937
Italian invented the first practical system of wireless telegraphy 1874-1957
German discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong electric field 1877-1944
British discovered that every chemical element, when irradiated by x rays, can emit an x-ray spectrum of two line-groups, which he named the K-series and L-series, that are of fundamental importance to understanding atomic structure 1879-1955
German-born American explained Brownian motion and photoelectric effect; contributed to theory of atomic spectra; formulated theories of special and general relativity 1879-1968
German discovered the fission of heavy nuclei 1879-1960
German discovered diffraction of x rays by crystals 1879-1959
British discovered the basic law of thermionic emission, now called the Richardson (or Richardson-Dushman) equation, which describes the emission of electrons from a heated conductor 1881-1958
American co-discovered electron diffraction 1882-1970
German-born British contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; pioneer in the theory of crystals 1882-1961
American invented an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures; made many discoveries in high-pressure physics 1882-1964
German experimentally confirmed that atomic energy states are quantized 1883-1964
Austrian discovered cosmic radiation 1884-1966
Dutch-born German used methods of statistical mechanics to calculate equilibrium properties of solids; contributed to knowledge of molecular structure 1885-1962
Danish contributed to quantum theory and to theory of nuclear reactions and nuclear fission 1886-1978
Swedish made important experimental contributions to the field of x-ray spectroscopy 1887-1975
German experimentally confirmed that atomic energy states are quantized 1887-1961
Austrian contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; formulated the Schrödinger wave equation 1888-1970
Indian studied light scattering and discovered the Raman effect 1888-1969
German-born American contributed to development of the molecular beam method; discovered the magnetic moment of the proton 1888-1966
Dutch invented the phase-contrast microscope, a type of microscope widely used for examining specimens such as biological cells and tissues 1890-1971
British worked on crystal structure and x rays 1891-1957
German devised a coincidence counter for studying cosmic rays; demonstrated validity of energy-momentum conservation at the atomic scale 1891-1974
British discovered the neutron 1892-1965
English discovered the layer of the Earth's atmosphere, called the Appleton layer, which is the part of the ionosphere having the highest concentration of free electrons and is the most useful for radio transmission 1892-1987
French predicted wave properties of the electron 1892-1962
American discovered the increase in wavelength of x rays when scattered by an electron 1892-1975
British co-discovered electron diffraction 1893-1981
American discovered deuterium 1894-1984
Soviet heralded a new era of low-temperature physics by inventing a device for producing liquid helium without previous cooling with liquid hydrogen; demonstrated that Helium II is a quantum superfluid 1895-1971
Soviet co-developed the theoretical interpretation of the radiation of electrons moving through matter faster than the speed of light (the ``Cerenkov effect''), and developed the theory of showers in cosmic rays 1896-1986
American introduced the theoretical concept of the molecular orbital, which led to a new understanding of the chemical bond and the electronic structure of molecules 1897-1974
British developed an automatic Wilson cloud chamber; discovered electron-positron pair production in cosmic rays 1897-1967
British co-invented the first particle accelerator 1897-1956
French co-discovered artificial radioactivity 1898-1988
Austrian-born American developed the resonance technique for measuring the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei 1900-1958
French co-discovered artificial radioactivity 1900-1979
Hungarian invented and developed the holographic method whereby it is possible to record and display a three-dimensional display of an object 1900-1958
Austrian-born American discovered the exclusion principle; suggested the existence of the neutrino 1901-1954
Italian-born American performed experiments leading to first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction; developed a theory of beta decay that introduced the weak interaction; derived the statistical properties of gases that obey the Pauli exclusion principle 1901-1976
German contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; introduced the ``uncertainty principle'' and the concept of exchange forces 1901-1958
American invented the cyclotron 1902-1984
British helped found quantum electrodynamics; predicted the existence of antimatter by combining quantum mechanics with special relativity 1902-1984
French discovered and developed optical methods for studying the Hertzian resonances that are produced when atoms interact with radio waves or microwaves 1902-1995
Hungarian-born American contributed to theoretical atomic and nuclear physics; introduced concept of the nuclear cross section 1903-1969
British developed the photographic emulsion method of studying nuclear processes; discovered the charged pion 1903-1995
Irish co-invented the first particle accelerator 1904-1990
Soviet discovered the ``Cerenkov effect'' whereby light is emitted by a particle passing through a medium at a speed greater than that of light in the medium 1905-1991
American discovered the positron and the muon 1905-1983
Swiss-born American contributed to development of the NMR technique; measured the magnetic moment of the neutron; contributed to the theory of metals 1905-1996
British contributed to theoretical condensed-matter physics by applying quantum theory to complex phenomena in solids; calculated cross section for relativistic Coulomb scattering 1905-1989
Italian-born American co-discovered the antiproton; discovered technetium 1906-2005
German-born American contributed to theoretical nuclear physics, especially concerning the mechanism for energy production in stars 1906-1972
German-born American advanced shell model of nuclear structure 1906-1988
German designed the first electron microscope 1906-1979
Japanese co-developed quantum electrodynamics 1907-1973
German advanced shell model of nuclear structure 1907-1991
American made discoveries concerning the transuranium elements 1907-1981
Japanese predicted existence of the pion 1908-1991
American co-discovered the transistor effect; developed theory of superconductivity 1908-1990
Soviet co-developed the theoretical interpretation of the radiation of electrons moving through matter faster than the speed of light (the ``Cerenkov effect''), and carried out experimental investigations of pair creation by gamma rays 1908-1968
Soviet contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity 1910-1995
Indian-born American made important theoretical contributions concerning the structure and evolution of stars, especially white dwarfs 1910-1989
American co-discovered the transistor effect 1911-1988
American constructed huge bubble chambers and discovered many short-lived hadrons; advanced the impact theory for the extinction of the dinosaurs 1911-1995
American studied nuclear reactions of astrophysical significance; developed, with others, a theory of the formation of chemical elements in the universe 1911-1993
American experimentally established that the electron has an anomalous magnetic moment and made a precision determination of its magnitude 1912-1997
American developed method of nuclear resonance absorption that permitted the absolute determination of nuclear magnetic moments; co-discovered a line in the galactic radiospectrum caused by atomic hydrogen 1912-1999
American co-discovered plutonium and all further transuranium elements through element 102 1913-2008
American made discoveries concerning fine structure of hydrogen 1915-1990
American measured charge distributions in atomic nuclei with high-energy electron scattering; measured the charge and magnetic-moment distributions in the proton and neutron 1915-2011
American developed the separated oscillatory fields method, which is the basis of the cesium atomic clock (our present time standard); co-invented the hydrogen maser 1915-2001
American developed a neutron scattering technique in which a neutron diffraction pattern is produced that may be used to determine the atomic structure of a material 1915-2015
American created first maser using ammonia to produce coherent microwave radiation 1916-2004
English co-proposed the double-helix structure of DNA 1916-2004
British investigated the structure of DNA 1918-2003
Canadian developed the technique of neutron spectroscopy for studies of condensed matter 1918-1988
American co-developed quantum electrodynamics; created a new formalism for practical calculations by introducing a graphical method called Feynman diagrams 1918-1998
American established, together with Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., the existence of the electron antineutrino by detecting them using a reactor experiment 1918-1994
American co-developed quantum electrodynamics 1918-2007
Swedish contributed to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy 1920-
Dutch-born American contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy 1920-2006
American co-discovered the antiproton 1921-2015
Japanese-born American contributed to elementary particle theory; recognized the role played by spontaneous symmetry-breaking in analogy with superconductivity theory; formulated QCD (quantum chromodynamics), the gauge theory of color 1921-1989
Russian father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb; awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations 1921-1999
American contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy 1921-
German-born American made many important discoveries in particle physics; co-discovered the neutral pion via photoproduction; co-discovered the muon neutrino 1922-2001
Soviet worked in quantum electronics; independently worked out theoretical basis of the maser 1922-2009
Danish contributed to theoretical understanding of collective motion in nuclei 1922-
American contributed to the discovery of the muon neutrino and the bottom quark 1922-
Chinese-born American co-proposed parity violation in weak interactions 1923-2015
American co-discovered that decays of neutral kaons sometime violate CP conservation 1923-2005
American invented the monolithic integrated circuit - the microchip - which laid the foundation for the field of microelectronics; co-invented the hand held calculator 1924-2011
Canadian co-invented the CCD (charge-coupled device) 1924-2010
French invented the multiwire proportional chamber 1925-
American made important contributions to the theoretical understanding of quantum optics and high-energy collisions 1925-2011
Dutch contributed to experiments that led to the discovery of the carriers (W± and Z°) of the weak interaction 1926-2013
American invented the bubble chamber 1926-1999
American co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus 1926-
American contributed to theoretical understanding of collective motion in nuclei 1926-
Chinese-born American co-proposed parity violation in weak interactions 1926-1996
Pakistani co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction; suggested that the proton might be unstable 1927-
Swiss co-discovered the first ceramic superconductors 1927-2014
American discovered the tau lepton 1929-
American advanced an explanation of strange particles; predicted the existence of the Omega- particle; postulated existence of quarks; founded the study of QCD 1929-2011
German experimented with resonance absorption of gamma radiation; discovered ``Mössbauer effect,'' the recoilless emission of gamma rays by nuclei 1929-
Canadian co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus 1930-
American contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superconductivity 1930-
American co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus 1930-
American co-invented the CCD (charge-coupled device) 1931-
American co-discovered that decays of neutral kaons sometime violate CP conservation 1931-
American co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero 1931-
American carried out an experiment leading to the discovery of charmonium 1931-
American contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superconductivity 1932-2007
French developed theories in condensed matter physics applicable to liquid crystals and polymers 1932-
American co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction 1932-2006
American proposed that it should be possible to produce and use a beam of neutrinos; co-discovered the muon neutrino 1933-
French developed methods, with his colleagues, of using laser light to cool helium atoms to a temperature of about 0.18 µK and capturing the chilled atoms in a trap 1933-
Chinese-born British-American pioneer in the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications 1933-
German-born American co-discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation 1933-2013
Swiss co-designed the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a type of microscope in which a fine conducting probe is held close the surface of a sample 1933-
American co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction 1934-
Italian contributed to experiments that led to the discovery of the carriers (W± and Z°) of the weak interaction 1936-
American co-discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation 1936-
American carried out an experiment leading to the discovery of charmonium 1936-2013
American invented renormalization group methods to develop a theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions; contributed to solving QCD using lattice gauge theory 1937-2013
American co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero 1938-
French co-discovered Giant Magnetoresistance, which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks 1939-
German co-discovered Giant Magnetoresistance, which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks 1940-
Welsh contributed to theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier 1940-
Japanese contributed to theoretical understanding of CP-violation; co-discovered the origin of the broken symmetry that predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks 1941-
American co-discovered ``asymptotic freedom'' in non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the development of string theory 1943-
German discovered the quantized Hall effect 1944-
Japanese contributed to theoretical understanding of CP-violation; co-discovered the origin of the broken symmetry that predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks 1945-
American co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero 1946-
Dutch contributed to theoretical understanding of gauge theories in elementary particle physics, quantum gravity and black holes, and fundamental aspects of quantum physics 1947-
German co-designed the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a type of microscope in which a fine conducting probe is held close the surface of a sample 1948-
American developed the Doppler cooling method of using laser light (optical molasses) to cool gases and capturing the chilled atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) 1948-
American developed, with his colleagues, a device called a Zeeman slower, with which he could slow down and capture atoms in a purely magnetic trap 1949-
American co-discovered ``asymptotic freedom'' in non-Abelian gauge theories; co-predicted the existence of charmonium - the bound state of a charm quark and its antiparticle 1950-
German co-discovered the first ceramic superconductors 1950-
American developed a theory of quantum fluids that explained the fractional quantum Hall effect 1951-
American co-discovered ``asymptotic freedom'' in non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the study of ``anyons'' (particle-like excitations in two-dimensional systems that obey ``fractional statistics'') 1958-
Dutch-Russian co-discovered a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene 1974-
Russian-British co-discovered a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene Others 1868-1919
American founded the science of architectural acoustics 1868-1951
German generalized the circular orbits of the atomic Bohr model to elliptical orbits; introduced the magnetic quantum number; used statistical mechanics to explain the electronic properties of metals 1878-1968
Austrian-born Swedish co-discovered the element protactinium and studied the effects of neutron bombardment on uranium; introduced term ``fission'' for splitting the atomic nucleus 1880-1933
Austrian applied quantum mechanics to rotating bodies; helped develop the modern statistical theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics 1881-1963
Hungarian-born American provided major contributions to our understanding of fluid mechanics, turbulence theory, and supersonic flight 1882-1974
German co-discovered the ``Meissner effect'', whereby a superconductor expells a magnetic field 1882-1935
German developed Noether's theorem, which relates the continuous symmetries of a physical system to specific conservation laws 1883-1945
German helped measure charge-to-mass ratio for alpha particles; invented Geiger counter for detecting ionizing particles 1885-1955
German attempted to incorporate electromagnetism into general relativity; evolved the concept of continuous groups using matrix representations and applied group theory to quantum mechanics 1886-1950
Canadian-born American discovered the isotope uranium-235 1887-1915
British developed the modern form of the period table of elements based on their atomic numbers 1892-1973
Scottish developed radar 1894-1974
Indian worked out statistical method of handling bosons (a group of particles named in his honor) 1894-1977
Swedish introduced the physical notion of extra dimensions that helped develop the Kaluza-Klein theory; co-developed the Klein-Gordon equation describing the relativistic behavior of spinless particles; co-developed the Klein-Nishina formula describing relativistic electron-photon scattering 1898-1974
Russian made fundamental contributions to quantum theory; invented the Hartree-Fock approximation method and the notion of Fock space 1898-1964
Hungarian-born American first suggested possibility of a nuclear chain reaction 1899-1993
French discovered the Auger effect whereby an electron is ejected from an atom without the emission of an x-ray or gamma-ray photon as the result of the de-excitation of an excited electron within the atom; discovered cosmic-ray air showers 1900-1998
German-born American developed the Ising model of ferromagnetism 1900-1954
German-born American co-developed the phenomenological theory of superconductivity; co-developed the first quantum-mechanical treatment of the hydrogen molecule; determined that the electromagnetic gauge is the phase of the Schrödinger wave function 1900-1985
American established the Richter scale for the measurement of earthquake intensity 1900-1988
Dutch co-discovered that the electron has an intrinsic spin 1901-1967
American invented the Van de Graaf electrostatic generator 1902-1978
Dutch co-discovered that the electron has an intrinsic spin 1903-1960
Soviet headed the Soviet atomic and hydrogen bomb programs 1903-1957
Hungarian-born American formulated a fully quantum mechanical generalization of statistical mechanics 1904-1968
Russian-born American first suggested hydrogen fusion as source of solar energy 1904-1967
American headed Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear fission bomb 1907-1995
German-born British many contributions in theoretical physics, including an improved calculation of the critical mass needed to make a fission bomb 1908-2003
Hungarian-born American helped develop atomic and hydrogen bombs 1908-2002
Austrian-born American made theoretical contributions to quantum electrodynamics, nuclear structure, and elementary particle physics 1909-1966
Indian initiated nuclear research programs in India; carried out experiments in cosmic rays; calculated cross section for elastic electron-positron scattering 1909-1992
Russian theoretical physicist and mathematician who contributed to the microscopic theory of superfluidity; also contributed to theory of elementary particles, including the S-matrix and dispersion relations, and to nonlinear mechanics and the general theory of dynamical systems 1911-2011
Austrian-born American first measured (with James Chadwick) an accurate mass for the neutron; participated in experiments proving that beta rays are identical to atomic electrons; developed (with Edward Teller) the concept of coherent oscillations of protons and neutrons in nuclei leading to the giant dipole resonance; performed an experiment showing that neutrinos are created with negative helicity, which provided conclusive evidence for the V-A theory of weak interactions; participated in experiments that obtained an upper limit on the rate of proton decay and that provided evidence for neutrino oscillations 1912-1997
Chinese-born American experimentally proved that parity is not conserved in nuclear beta decay 1914-1983
Russian-born American co-developed the theory of spin waves; first described the process that became known as the ``Primakoff effect'' (the coherent photoproduction of neutral mesons in the electric field of an atomic nucleus); contributed to understanding of various manifestations of the weak interaction, including muon capture, double-beta decay, and the interaction of neutrinos with nuclei 1914-2000
American driving force behind creation of Fermilab and Cornell University's Laboratory of Nuclear Studies; a leader in the formation of the Federation of Atomic Scientists; did extensive measurements of kaon and pion photoproduction in which he made the first observation of a new state of the nucleon, N(1440) 1916-2009
Russian contributed to theory of superconductivity and theory of high-energy processes in astrophysics; co-discovered transition radiation, emitted when charged particles traverse interface between two different media 1916-1993
American contributed to theoretical particle physics; independently proposed (with George Sudarshan) the V-A theory of weak interactions; developed explanation of how shock waves behave under conditions of extremely high temperatures 1919-2007
German-born American co-discovered the neutral pion via photoproduction; studied gamma rays from pi- captured in hydrogen and first measured the ``Panofsky ratio'' 1919-2010
Canadian-born American used the Mössbauer effect to measure (with Glen A. Rebka, Jr.) the gravitational redshift predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity 1921-2003
American participated in experiments to test the fundamental QED interaction using the muonium atom 1923-
British-born American made many important contribututions to quantum field theory, including the demonstration that the Feynman rules are direct and rigorous consequences of quantum field theory; advocated exploration of the solar system by humans; speculated on the possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations 1923-
American made pioneering contributions to nanoscale measurement science through the development and application of scanning probe microscropes 1923-2015
American contributed to theory of weak interactions, especially concerning neutrino masses, the origin of CP violation, lepton number violation, the solar neutrino problem, and Higgs boson properties 1923-1999
American co-invented the radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), a practical magnetometer/amplifier with extreme sensitivity limited only by the uncertainty principle 1924-
Swiss-born American pioneered the use of nuclear-physics techniques for exploring fundamental questions concerning the weak interactions and the nature of neutrinos 1924-
German-born American contributed to the theoretical understanding of how symmetries place restrictions on theories and models; the connection of quarks and gluons to nucleon-meson degrees of freedom; the changes that occur when hadrons are placed in a nuclear medium 1924-2010
French-American developed theory of fractals 1926-2005
Canadian served as Science Advisor to the President of the United States; carried out pioneering studies of nuclear structure and dynamics; considered the father of modern heavy-ion science 1926-
American made important theoretical contributions to particle physics and quantum electrodynamics; specialist in arms control and national security 1927-2009
British-born American developed the first practical scanning electron microscope 1928-1990
Irish proved the inherent nonlocality of quantum mechanics 1928-2016
South African-born American contributed to the modern understanding of relativistic particle scattering through his representation of the analytic properties of scattering amplitudes in the form of double dispersion relations (Mandelstam representation); applied path-integral quantization methods to string theory 1929-
British proposed with others the Higgs mechanism by which particles are endowed with mass by interacting with the Higgs field, which is carried by Higgs bosons 1930-
Japanese co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus 1930-
American contributed to the advance of solid-state physics, especially involving carbon-based materials, including fullerenes and nanotubes (a.k.a., buckyballs and buckytubes) 1930-
Czech-born American contributed to condensed matter theory, especially involving statistical mechanics: phase transitions; derivation of hydrodynamical equations from microscopic kinetics; statistical mechanics of plasmas 1930-
Hungarian-born American studied nuclear structure, pion absorption in nuclei, ion traps and crystalline beams, heavy-ion physics, and the Mössbauer effect 1931-
American contributed to the theory of plasma physics and magnetic fusion 1931-2014
Italian developed the theory of Regge trajectories by investigating the asymptotic behavior of potential-scattering processes through the analytic continuation of the angular momentum to the complex plane 1932-
American introduced color as a quantum number to resolve the quark statistics paradox 1932-
American contributed to the theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus as a relativistic quantum many-body system; provided theoretical guidance in exploiting electromagnetic and weak probes of the nucleus 1932-
American co-invented the hydrogen maser; explores quantum chaos by optical spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms 1933-
British contributed to understanding the role of massless particles in spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone bosons) 1934-2005
American made important theoretical contributions to understanding solar neutrinos and quasars 1934-
American formulated the scaling law for deep inelastic processes and made other outstanding contributions to particle physics and quantum field theory 1934-
Russian made many theoretical contributions in quantum field theory and mathematical physics; developed the Faddeev equation in connection with the three-body system; co-developed the Faddeev-Popov covariant prescription for quantizing non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the quantum inverse scattering method and the quantum theory of solitons David J. Thouless 1934-
Scottish-born American contributed to condensed matter theory, especially vortices in superfluids, the quantum Hall effect, and topological quantum numbers 1935-1997
American contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, quantum optics, elementary particle physics, and field theory; statistics and dynamics of galaxy distributions 1935-
American contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, low-temperature physics including superfluidity, statistical physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics; made advances in quantum statistical mechanics and the study of neutron stars 1940-
American contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy physics, especially the quark-gluon structure of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics 1940-
Israeli predicted the existence of the top quark, which he named; also named the bottom quark 1940-
American contributed to theoretical understanding of black holes and gravitational radiation; co-founded the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory Project (LIGO) 1942-
Italian-born American co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus; introduced supersymmetry in nuclei (1980); developed the Vibron Model of molecules (1981) 1942-
Italian first introduced string theory to describe the strong force without using quantum fields 1944-
American contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy collisions and the fundamental interactions of elementary particles 1944-
American contributed to theory of soft condensed matter; structured fluids 1947-
American co-developed the SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories of all elementary particle forces; developed the modern QCD-inspired quark model; helped develop the modern theory of perturbative QCD 1947-2001
American contributed to understanding the quark structure of baryon resonances; discovered a new symmetry of nature that describes the behavior of heavy quarks 1951-
American made fundamental contributions to manifold theory, string theory, and the theory of supersymmetric quantum mechanics 1952-
American leading theorist of molecular nanotechnology; invented the encryption technology that allows secure translations over the internet 1955-
American father of nanotechnology 1956-
Israeli American contributed to the development of supersymmetric field theories and string theories in various dimensions 1959-
British created Mathematica, the first modern computer algebra system; contributed to development of complexity theory



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